Numeric and Binary Encoders in Python
A categorical variable, as the name suggests, is used to represent categories or labels. For instance, a categorical variable could represent major cities in the world, the four seasons in a year, or the industry (oil, travel, technology) of a company. […] The categories of a categorical variable are usually not numeric. [..] Thus, an encoding method is needed to turn these non-numeric categories into numbers.1
Both Pandas and scikit-learn propose encoders to deal with categorical variables. But the distinction between each technique and implementation is not obvious. This is what I will try to clarify it in this article.
Basically we can distinct two kinds of encoder:
- Encode labels (categorical variables) into numeric variables: Pandas
LabelEncoder. The result will have 1 dimension.
- Encode categorical variable into dummy/indicator (binary) variables: Pandas
OneHotEncoder. The result will have n dimensions (or n-1 dimensions), one by distinct value of the encoded categorical variable.
The main difference between pandas and scikit-learn encoders is that they are made to be used in scikit-learn pipelines with
Encode labels into numerical variables
factorize and scikit-learn
LabelEncoder belong to the first category. They can be used to encode labels (nonnumerical variables) to numerical variables.
from sklearn import preprocessing # Test data df = DataFrame(['A', 'B', 'B', 'C'], columns=['Col']) df['Fact'] = pd.factorize(df['Col']) le = preprocessing.LabelEncoder() df['Lab'] = le.fit_transform(df['Col']) # Col Fact Lab # 0 A 0 0 # 1 B 1 1 # 2 B 1 1 # 3 C 2 2
But pay attention since converting nonnumerical variables to numbers is not the end of the road.
The values may be represented numerically. However, unlike other numeric variables, the values of a categorical variable cannot be ordered with respect to one another. (Oil is neither greater than nor less than travel as an industry type.) They are called non-ordinal.$^1$
Encode categorical variable into dummy/indicator (binary) variables
get_dummies and scikit-learn
OneHotEncoder can be used to create binary variables.
OneHotEncoder can only be used with categorical integers while get_dummies can be used with other type of variables. Another difference is that they refer to two feature engineering techniques:
- One-hot encoding: It uses k bit to encode k values. It is implemented by both
- Dummy coding: It uses k-1 bit to encode k values. It is implemented only by
df = DataFrame(['A', 'B', 'B', 'C'], columns=['Col']) df = pd.get_dummies(df) # Col_A Col_B Col_C # 0 1.0 0.0 0.0 # 1 0.0 1.0 0.0 # 2 0.0 1.0 0.0 # 3 0.0 0.0 1.0
We can see here that 3 bits are required to encode 3 distinct values where the variable itself needs only 2 bits (k-1 bits). In this case the extra feature is dropped (
A) thanks to the parameter drop_first and so it is represented implicitly by all 0.
This is known as the reference category.
df = DataFrame(['A', 'B', 'B', 'C'], columns=['Col']) df = pd.get_dummies(df, drop_first=True) # Col_B Col_C # 0 0 0 # 1 1 0 # 2 1 0 # 3 0 1
It’s trickier to do the same thing with scikit-learn since data has to be converted first to numeric before using the
from sklearn.preprocessing import OneHotEncoder, LabelEncoder df = DataFrame(['A', 'B', 'B', 'C'], columns=['Col']) # We need to transform first character into integer in order to use the OneHotEncoder le = preprocessing.LabelEncoder() df['Col'] = le.fit_transform(df['Col']) enc = OneHotEncoder() df = DataFrame(enc.fit_transform(df).toarray()) # 0 1 2 # 0 1.0 0.0 0.0 # 1 0.0 1.0 0.0 # 2 0.0 1.0 0.0 # 3 0.0 0.0 1.0
Note: This post is an augmented version of my Stack Overflow answer2